Friday 30 October 2009

Jonathan Lewis Seminar in Dallas

I got to hear Oracle performance guru Jonathan Lewis today in an all-day seminar in Dallas. "Writing Optimal SQL" was part 2 of a two-part series here in Dallas, sponsored by Dallas Oracle Users Group (DOUG).

Jonathan started out by reviewing some general principles, such as the importance of design and optimizing for the global situation (many queries) not just a single query. "Making me go fast might make you go slower," he said.

Performance comes from precision in selecting just the blocks and rows you need to select, and from the structure of the data (where it's located).

My favorite part of the seminar was his discussion on coding style for SQL, a topic that is often ignored in performance discussions. His view that "Computers are cheap; humans are expensive" is one that I've been preaching for years in my SQL and PL/SQL classes.  "You have two audiences," I tell my classes, "the compiler, and the poor person who comes after you to maintain your code.  Be kind.  Someday that person will be you." Jonathan's take is that you should write SQL as a close translation of the business purpose of the query, and only fiddle with it if performance isn't acceptable.

He also suggested: "Don't tune the SQL; tune the end users," meaning that if a requirement is unclear or the data creates unexpected results, go back to the person requesting the report and get clarification instead of burning a lot of time over-engineering the solution to fit every possible case.

This talk could easily have been titled, "Unintended Side-Effects of SQL" because Jonathan went through many scenarios in which results differed from what might have been expected, and why it turned out that way.

It was a great session.  Thanks to Speak-Tech  and to DOUG's Mary Elizabeth McNeely, president and programs chair, for bringing Jonathan Lewis to town.

Monday 12 October 2009

Oracle 11gR2 Podcast by Tom Kyte

Tom Kyte recorded a podcast this month about the new features of Oracle Database 11gR2. The podcast, part of the Oracle Database podcasts series, can be accessed here:

In it, he describes an exciting new feature: the ability to compile stored procedures, packages, etc. while users are online using the same schema! The feature, called Edition-based Redefinition, refers to the current objects as an "edition".  The developer creates a child edition based upon the current one, then does development against the child edition. When it comes time to switch over, new sessions can begin using the new edition, as existing sessions continue to use the old. An upgrade that used to take an hour of downtime for compilations can appear to users to take no time at all. It still takes an hour to compile, he said, but the users are not locked out of the system while it's happening.

He also talks about the ability to create a table, but defer to allocation of storage until the table is first used. This will make it much faster to install complex software applications that have many optional tables in them. Only the metadata in the data dictionary will be created during the install, and tables never used will therfore not take up space.

It's a short talk, about 10 minutes, but well worth listening to.

Monday 27 April 2009

Controlling Controlfile Backups

Did you know that you can control the name of your controfile trace backups? I didn't, until Bob Morgan of Stonehill College in Easton, MA pointed out some additional syntax in the ALTER DATABASE command.

I already knew that you could control the filename and location when backing up the controlfile in binary, via:


And I knew that you could get a text copy of the commands necessary to rebuild the controlfiles, via:


The resulting text commands are placed in the user's trace file for the session. To find the proper trace file requires knowing the session number; it's in the filename.  (Though I usually cheat, and go to the directory pointed to by the user_dump_dest parameter, sort by modification time, and my session is near the top.)

What Bob pointed out was the variation:


This still writes to the backup_dump_dest directory, but names the tracefile with your choice of filename instead of the default one that includes the session number.  Much easier to find.

Thanks, Bob!

Tuesday 31 March 2009


Here are some clips of my published work, including both technical and non-technical subjects. These articles averaged 1200 words each.

Five More Things to Unlearn About Oracle
(, 4/19/04)

Here’s an example using the sample data in the SCOTT schema. An employee record is deleted, and the change committed:

DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = 7934;

The row is missing from further SELECT statements, and even a ROLLBACK command cannot bring the row back. However, a Flashback Query can display the contents of the table as it was 10 minutes ago, when the deleted row still existed:

WHERE empno = 7934;

This SELECT statement can be used as the subquery of an INSERT statement to reload the deleted data. Be aware, however, that INSERT will be subject to any constraints on the table, and that any INSERT triggers on the table will be executed.

Full article

Oracle Collaboration Suite Database Middleware
(, 2/13/03)

Oracle Corporation is hoping that the third time will be the charm for its latest try at an office communications platform with the Oracle Collaboration Suite (OCS). Two earlier products - Oracle InterOffice and Oracle Office Server - weren’t widely adopted. This time, however, both the underlying Oracle database and the Application Server middleware are more mature, and its main competitor's customers are facing expensive version upgrades.

Sara Radicati, president and CEO of The Radicati Group, spoke to press and analysts at the November 2002 OracleWorld Conference in San Francisco. She identified three key pressures that IT departments are feeling right now...

Full article

The Benefits from Using Wireless in Database Administration
(, 1/28/03)

It's 2:30 P.M. and you're working on-site for one of your customers. Your pager bleats out an urgent call from a second client across town whose server is down. You can try to help the second client on the phone—a slow, tedious process that may create political issues with the current customer. Or you can leave the one client to drive to the other. Either way, the second client’s server is down, and the clock is ticking.

The rapid expansion of wireless Internet access is making this scenario easier to handle. Now you can take out your Palm or Pocket PC and quickly correct the issue regardless of your location. You've become the wireless database administrator.

Full article

Microsoft's IT Lifecycle Frameworks
(, 10/24/01)

IT consultants at large firms use a company-defined project methodology to ensure that each project covers all the right steps. The methodology specifies actual forms and reports to be used at various stages of the project and specific rules for how the project will be conducted.

But what if you’re an independent or work for a smaller firm? You could imitate the larger firms and develop your own project methodology at great expense. But why reinvent the wheel?

For the past six years, Microsoft has been developing and refining its own set of project management tools. Originally developed within Microsoft Consulting Services (MCS), the IT Lifecycle Frameworks are available for free on Microsoft’s Web site.

Full article

No pain, no gain: Seeing opportunity as a free agent
(, 9/19/01)

A salesperson I know starts each conversation about a client by asking: “Where is their 'pain'?” He knows that unless they are motivated to change, he is unlikely to make a sale.

The same holds true for you as a free-agent consultant; unless your client sees a need to change something, they won’t hire you. Therefore, understanding what motivates people to change is the key to spotting opportunities.

An opportunity is a problem you can help with—at a profit. Learning to see opportunity means looking for all three parts of that definition...

Full article

Sunday 29 March 2009

Training Tip: When You Train, Train

I think it was The Inner Game of Tennis, by Timothy Gallwey, that first taught me this lesson: when you are preparing for a class, prepare. But when it comes time to stand up in front and start the class, train.

You may not feel as prepared as you would like to be. The conditions may not be as ideal as you would like them to be. But once class starts, you are who you are, and the conditions are what they are. You go for it.  You give your current self to the group, just as you are, and you do your best. You train.

It's hard to stop the inner, critical voice that reacts when you make a mistake. It's hard not to wince or get flustered when your lesson plan just plain doesn't work for a given group. But training is as much a performance as a play (except that many of the lines are not scripted), and the show must go on. Adapt, go where it takes you in the moment.

Of course, you can and should review your performance in the classroom. Every time. But you do that afterwards, when the room is empty or you're at yet another chain restaurant having dinner. There have been weeks when I've devoted my hotel time to staying one day ahead of the students, constantly reviewing the day just past and prepping like mad for the day to come.

Disney is a model for me in this regard. In their theme parks, they have "on stage" and "off stage" areas. When you're on stage, in front of paying customers, you're expected to be in character the whole time, even if you're not on duty and just passing from one place to the next. No gossiping about your friends or school, no talk of religion, politics, or sex. That's for off stage, when you're behind the scenes. Some criticize this, saying that it is artificial and inhumane for workers to be unable to be themselves. But I think it's the one key thing that makes going to a Disney park different than other ones. You're immersed in the story, and they're careful to eliminate anything that distracts from that experience.

When you're training, you're on stage too. Play the part the best you know how. Then later, off stage, plan how you're going to make it an even better show next time.

Saturday 21 March 2009

Training Tip: Training By Walking Around

In his best-selling business book In Search of Excellence, Tom Peters profiles companies such as Hewlett-Packard and United Airlines that practice "Management By Walking Around" (MBWA for short). Management is encouraged to get out of the office and into the field as often as possible to see things firsthand.

Too often, trainers feel constrained by the podium or other setup at the front of the room. They lecture from one spot, and answer questions from the front as well. "Training By Walking Around" means circulating in the room, teaching from various points.

Using a variety of media (computer, white board, easel, etc.) can help get you moving. It also provides variety to hold the attendees' attention.

This is especially important during lab exercises. It's tempting to retreat behind the front desk at such times; after all, you've been standing and talking, and now is your chance to sit, right? Wrong. Try this experiment: during a lab, ask if anyone needs anything.  Usually, you'll get no responses.  A minute later, casually get up and walk up and down the aisles. Chances are, someone will stop you and ask a question.

I will usually sit for the first five to ten minutes of a lab, then circulate, asking if everyone has gotten started okay. After another five to ten minutes, I'll circulate again, asking if anyone needs "another pair of eyes" to look at an error message.  Before the end of the lab, I'll make another pass silently. Usually by then people are stuck on a particular problem and will call me over as I pass by them.

I've even taught from the back of the classroom. I'd been presenting for a while, and could tell the group needed an energizer.  So I had them all stand and turn around, and I walked to the back (which was now in front of them.)  I did a contest quiz with a prize -- but because they were facing away from their notes and the computers, they couldn't reference them! We laughed about this, the act of standing re-energized the group, and we continued normally afterwards.

Wednesday 25 February 2009

Training Tip: When to Ignore Advice

One of my earliest mentors in training gave me many immensely valuable pieces of advice.  And two that I've learned to ignore. I was thinking about this today while re-reading an old classic, Teacher as Servant: A Parable, by Robert K. Greenleaf (now out of print, but available used). So, here are two bits of advice I learned to ignore.

1. "Always perpetuate the illusion that in the classroom, you are God."

By that, I'm sure he meant to say that one must establish and maintain credibility. Once credibility is lost in a class, you seldom have the chance to regain it with that group. It's also important to maintain the authority that keeps you in control of the classroom process. But I've found it more useful to consider myself a servant of the group than its master. Yes, it's my job to maintain control; but only because they're paying me to do it, and because it serves their best interests for me to do so.

As usual, there are exceptions to every rule. I had one class that consisted entirely of highly-paid business consultants. I was told up front by their manager that it was a smart-alecky group that would give me trouble unless tightly managed. So I went in with the Top Gun approach, very authoritarian, but at the same time letting them know that "You're the best - but we're going to make you better."

2. "When you are doing class introductions, try to identify up front who the troublemakers are."

I tried this exactly once.  And I got what I expected: troublemakers. I haven't done it since. Now I expect up front that everyone in class is going to have fun, learn a lot, and contribute. It doesn't always happen that way, of course, but I think my expectations and mindset help it to happen more than it otherwise would.

The night before a class, as I'm falling asleep, I repeat to myself the affirmation (in present tense), "This is the best class I've ever had."

Thursday 8 January 2009

Tom Kyte's New Years Resolutions

Anyone who knows me knows I'm a BIG Tom Kyte fan.

Tom's published his list of New Years Resolutions for 2009, and the top of the list is "Practice a restore at least once a month."  You can read the rest of the resolutions here:

(Thanks to Chen Shapira on Twitter for the pointer to this.)

Thursday 1 January 2009

Training tip: Teleconference Don'ts

Esther Schindler of has a great article on PC World, listing 17 Telecommuting Disadvantages. One of them, #8,  is all about the annoyances of teleconferences -- but if you flip those annoyances around, they become training tips.

...people who lead teleconferences (with a half dozen participants) and start out by saying, "Who's here?" Doing so makes everyone on the phone wonder if it's their turn to speak up...  

Tip: take roll call instead, using the list of invited participants. Starting out this way also puts you squarely in control of the meeting. If possible, use web conferencing where rollcall is always available on the screen.

Organizers who show up late. Telecommuters are stuck listening to music-on-hold for ten minutes, during which they wonder, "Was today the right day? Did I miss the meeting?"  

Tip: Be there early if you're leading a session. Just like in the classroom, being early means you get to welcome everyone individually and establish rapport before the group session starts.

People who refer to a lot of visuals without bothering to send the file to telecommuters; and then they don't refer aloud to the data they're pointing at. 

Tip: Reference at least the slide title (and slide number -- you do put slide numbers on your slides, don't you?) when referring to visuals.

[A big thank you to Twitter user Reg Saddler (zaibatsu) for the link to this great article!]